Computer is an automated electronic device as per the order, which resolves large calculations, logical problems and scientific contracts in a few moments. It is an electronic device that takes input from us and works on it according to our order and gives output to our will. The computer is mainly composed of two parts, hardware and software
Classification of Computer
1)- Classification based on operating principle -
1. Analog computer-
It works on the principle of measurement, whose work changes any measurement, voltage, temperature, current, data.
2. Digital computers -
These computers work on digital theory. These precautions are used at full speed. They are used to process common tasks and data.
3. Hybrid Computers -
These are both jobs digital and analog form. It is used for controlling and logical experiments.
2)- Classification of computer based on size-
1. Super Computer -
This is the most powerful and expensive computer. These machines are high-capacity and occupational computers which are used in large institutions. They are used for important discoveries and scientific work. Supercomputer is used by NASA to launch and control the inner spacecraft and to search in the inner space. The first super computer was created in 1964, named CDC 6600. IBM's Blue Gene is one of the fastest computers in the world. Their main work is to predict weather, to know about earthquake, to know telephone, to test weapons and to know the effects of nuclear weapons.
2. Mainframe computers-
Their processing speed and the ability of data storage are very high and expensive. They are used in government organizations, big business companies, huge commercial banks, educational institutions, insurance companies etc.
3. Mini computers-
they are also called midrange computers and they are shaped like refrigerators. These are often used in small businesses, large or middle-class companies, production houses or work on single and multi-user concepts.
Microcomputer - This is the least powerful, cheap and most popular computer. They are used to communication, education, entertainment etc. There are four types of
Note book (laptop)
This computer is the smallest size that can be placed on the palm. Personal digital assistants and smartphones are the most popular handheld computers.
Feature of Computer
It processes approximately 1 lakh instructions in one second.
computer give us right results when we give it correct data, that is, it works on the principle of the GIGO (Garbage in garbage out).
High storage capacity-
Able to do every type of work
free from boredom.
It does not have an IQ meaning that it cannot do anything on its own. The order of instructions cannot be changed.
Groups of instructions or command are called software or programs. There are two types of software: Application software mess system software.
A group of several programs, which help the computer to organize its internal resources, is known by system software or background software or operating system. It acts to link between the hardware and software and between the users and the computer, or introduces the application software to the hardware. It provides interface between computer and user, and Windows is the most commonly or widely operating system.
1. Part of the operating system
utilities are also known as service programs.
The main function is to keep the files required by the operating system.
Disk Cleanup -
This is a Troubleshooting utility which increases system performance by deleting unnecessary files.
Disk Defragmenter -
Detecting the undesired fragments and deleting them and arranging data or disk space in a hard disk with similar files.
There is a helpful program in running all the devices which connected to the computer system, or the device is connected to computer by the device driver.
When the server is used when different users need to run different types of programs.
2. Type of Operating system -
Signal user operating system-
Single user multi tasking operating system-
Multiuser operating system-
Multi user multi tasking operating system-
Network operating system-
3. Types of operating systems based on interface
Command user interface -
MS-dos, Unix, linex etc.
Graphical user interface -
4. Function or work of Operating system
Managing resources -
most operating system store data and programs in the files and folders system. Files are used to store data and programs. The related files are stored inside a folder, and there may be several other folders in one folder.
Providing user interface -
Running Application -
These programs run or run programs and programs.
Memory Management- -
Devices Management -
Start and restart the computer is called booting. There are two ways to boot a computer: warm boot and cold boot.
Warm Boot -
When the on-computer is restarted by pressing the restart button, it is called a warm boot.
When the off-computer is started by pressing the power button, it is called a cold boot.
5. Operating system features and features-
Graphic representing for a Program, File Type, or Function
it is controlled by the mouse and depending on its current function for size changes.
It is Rectangular Area to Display Information and Run Programs
Providing menus -
oops or a list of commands
Providing information or request input
Message box -
Help and support-
Provides online support for functions and processors.
6. Operating system categories
Embedded operating systems-
Embedded operating systems are used for handheld computers and smallest devices such as PDAs and some smart phones. The entire operating system is stored or embedded in the device. The popular embedded operating system is Windows CE and Windows XP embedded.
Network operating systems-
N, O, S, are used to control and coordinate computers that are networked or linked or connected together. Popular network operating, NetWare, Windows NT server, Windows XP server, and Unix
single operating system or desktop operating system- Windows, Mac OS, and other versions of UNIX and Linux
Microsoft's Windows is by far the most popular microcomputer operating system. E.g., Windows XP, Windows - Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, etc.
Apple introduced its Macintosh Micro Computer and Operating System in 1984. One of the new versions of the Macintosh operating system is Mac OS X, a version of Mac OS, Leopard, which also includes boot camp.
UNIX and Linux-
Unix operating systems are designed to run on minimapputers in the basics of network environments. There are many different versions of UNIX, which are being highly meditated today, it is Linux.
2)- Application software-
1. Basic Application Software –
Software that has capable for doing all necessary tasks related to personal or private, is called application software or end user software.
They are now used in business, education, medical science, banking and industries.
Word Processor -
MS Word is used to make all types of applications, letters, faxes, personal or non-native memos etc. other word processors as like MS Word, eg - PageMaker, Quark Express, Adobe Iodizing, etc.
Spreadsheet software -
MS Excel is also known as spreadsheet software. Spreadsheet is used to create all types of calculations, analysis, graphs, budget, finance etc.
Presentation Software -
MS Power Point is presentation software that makes slides in a movable form of any project etc.
Web browser -
Google Chrome, Netscape Navigator, UC Browser, Magazine Firefox Internet Explorer, Opera Menu, Microsoft Ag, UC Browser etc.
2. Specialized application software –
Its software designed for private companies or special tasks
The physical part of the computer system that we can see and touch. Such as computer case, monitor key-board mouse printer, motherboard, memory chips, electronic circuit, extension card, cable, switch etc. Computer hardware is mainly distributed in the following parts-system unit (Processing), Input, Output, Storage Devices
1)-System Unit (Processing Unit) -
The system unit is a container or chassis, that commonly known by the cabinet. In which computer components or electronic device (motherboard processor, RAM, hard-disk, DVD writer or drive and S MP S) are engaged.
Motherboard is also called System Board, it is a huge Circuit Board or it is a main plate of the computer which has socket, slot, combination line or bus. To which microprocessor, ram and various types of card are connected.
The full name of CPU is a central processing unit. It is also called the brain of the computer. It has mainly two Part control units and arithmetic & logical units.
3. Memory -
cache memory, primary memory, secondary memory
2)- Input –
trackball, touch pad, microphone, key board, sensor, mouse, mechanic, scanner, web camera
3)- Output -
monitor, printer, headphone, speaker, touch screen, projector
4)- Storage- hard disk drive
Use of Computer
Our life has become easy, simple, and productive from the computer. Computers are now used in all areas such as education, medicine, scientific research, administration, transport, railway, communication, business, entertainment, home, hospitals etc.
1-Use of computers in homes-
Homework for School Children-
movies, watching videos, listening to music, playing games, live streaming videos etc.
Social Media -
Chatting videos by Facebook, Instagram, Google Plus etc.
To read and download websites, books, tutorials and related educational and informative content available on the internet etc.
2-Use of Computer in Education-
Smart Class -
Interactive Media, Picture, Video, Animation, Presentations, Simulated Content, Smart Content, Concepts, Concepts, Maintaining Knowledge for Long Term, Extra ERPs, administration activities, analysis of performance etc.
Nowadays all type books are being convert in e-books that students can read on anywhere with any language through mobile or computer.
Research Projects -
All types of cuttings, data and knowledge are available online in sufficient quantities, which is sufficient for research.
3- Use of Computer in Business-
It is mainly used to reduce the cost of business and increase customer satisfaction.
e-mail, instant messaging, contact system, VoIP, Communication by video chat.
Sales and Marketing -
To Creating Advertising, selling and Contact Access to the consumer.
Human Resources -
Companies use ERP to handle automated finance and human resources task. These ERPs include financial accounting, all related work to account book or accounting and human assessment etc.(ERP-Enterprise Resource Planning Package)
Education and training-
E-learning platforms work for educating employees, discussing corporate policies, business topics, standard processes, online assessments etc.